The Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) launched on 2nd October, 2014, by modifying the erstwhile Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA), is a community-led and people-oriented programme aimed at universalizing safe sanitation. Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) is only sanitation programme implemented by Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.


The Government launched Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) on 2nd October, 2014 to accelerate efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage, improve cleanliness and eliminate open defecation in India by 2nd October 2019.The program is considered India’s biggest drive to improve sanitation, hygiene and cleanliness in the country. The effectiveness of the Programme is predicated upon generating demand for toilets leading to their construction and sustained use by all the household members. It also aims to promote better hygiene behaviour amongst the population and improve cleanliness by initiating Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) projects in the villages of the country. This is to be bolstered with adequate implementation capacities in terms of trained personnel, financial incentives and systems and procedures for planning and monitoring. The emphasis is on stronger focus on behaviour change intervention including interpersonal communication; strengthening implementation and delivery mechanisms down to the GP level; and giving States flexibility to design delivery mechanisms that take into account local cultures, practices, sensibilities and demands.

  • Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) is restructured into Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
  • The Unit cost of the IHHL enhanced from Rs.10,000/- to Rs. 12,000/- so as to provide for water availability, including for storing, hand-washing and cleaning of toilets.
  • Central share for IHHLs to be Rs. 7200/- (60%) from Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The State share to be Rs. 4800/- (40%). For North Eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir and Special category states, the central share will be 10,800/- and the State share Rs. 1,200/-(90%:10%). Additional contributions from other sources are permitted.
  • Provision for IEC will be at 8% of total Project cost, with 3% to be utilised at the Central level and 5 % at State level.
  • Provision for Administrative Cost will be 2% of the Project cost. Sharing pattern will be 60:40 between Centre and State.
  • The part funding from MGNREGA for the payment of Incentives for the construction of Individual House Hold Latrines (IHHLs) is discontinued and the entire amount of GOI share paid from the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
  • SLWM funding will be at 60:40 sharing pattern. For CSCs it will be 60:30:10 (Centre: State: Community). CSCs will be constructed only when the Gram Panchayat takes the responsibility of ownership and a sustainable operation and maintenance system is assured.
  • The responsibility of construction of all School toilets is transferred to the Department of School Education and Literacy and of Anganwadi toilets to the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • Monitoring mechanism will be strengthened. Outputs (Construction) and Outcomes (Usage) will be monitored.
  • A menu of accredited Technology options for Toilets and SLWM projects shall be made available to the States by the Swachh Bharat Mission. The Mission will provide a list of minimal acceptable technologies for which assistance under this programme will be available. However use of any superior technology will be permitted at additional cost to be borne by the beneficiary.

The main objectives of SBM(G) are :

  • Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open defecation.
  • The Unit cost of the IHHL enhanced from Rs.10,000/- to Rs. 12,000/- so as to provide for water availability, including for storing, hand-washing and cleaning of toilets.
  • Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2nd October 2019.
  • Motivate Communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions to adopt sustainable sanitation practices and facilities through awareness creation and health education.
  • Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
  • Develop where required, Community managed sanitation systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.

The main activities are :

  • Construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHL)
  • Construction of Community Sanitary Complexes (CSCs).
  • Solid Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) activities.
  • Information, Education and Communication (IEC) and Human Resource Development (HRD) activities.
What are the incentives for IHHL toilets?
Sr. No. Component Amount earmarked as percent of the SBM(G) project outlay Contribution Share
Contribution Share
Contribution Share
(Beneficiary Household/ Community)
1. Individual Household Latrines Actual amount required for full coverage Rs.7200 (60%) (10,800 (90%) in case of NE States, J&K and Special category States ) Rs.4800(40%)(1,200 (10%) in case of NE States, J&K and Special category States )  
2. Community Sanitary Complexes Actual amount required for full coverage 60% 30% 10%
3. Solid/Liquid Waste Management (Capital Cost) Actual amount as per SLWM project cost within limits permitted 60% 40%  
4. IEC Component 8% of Allocation (3% at national level; 5% at state level) 60% 40%  
5. Administrative costs 2% of State Allocation 60% 40%  

For NE and Special Category States sharing pattern is in ratio of 90:10


Open Defecation Free (ODF) has been defined as:

“ODF is the termination of faecal-oral transmission, defined by:

  • No visible faeces found in the environment/village; and
  • Every household as well as public/community institutions using safe technology option for disposal of faeces

(Tip: Safe technology option means no contamination of surface soil, ground water or surface water; excreta inaccessible to flies and animals; and freedom from odour and unsightly condition)”


The SBM(G) is being implemented in the districts of the States/UTs with support from the GOI and the respective State/UT Governments.. At the district level, Zila Panchayat implements the project. In case, Zila Panchayat is not functional, District Water and Sanitation Mission (DWSM) can implement the SBM(G). Similarly, at the block and the Panchayat levels, Panchayat Samiti and respective Gram Panchayats are involved in the implementation of the SBM(G). 


As per the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 1992, sanitation is included in the 11th Schedule and is the responsibility of the panchayat. At the district level, Zila Panchayat implements the project. Similarly, at the block and the Panchayat levels, Panchayat Samiti and respective Gram Panchayats are involved in the implementation of SBM(G). Gram Panchayats have the pivotal role in the implementation of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) with VO/ NGOs to mobilize for the construction of toilets and also maintain the clean environment by way of safe disposal of wastes. They have the main responsibility in the O&M of the common facilities constructed. Panchayats may also open and operate the Production Centres/Rural Sanitary Marts.  


NGOs have an important role in the implementation of SBM(G) in the rural areas. They may be involved in IEC activities as well as in setting up PCs or RSMs. Their services are required to be utilized not only for bringing about awareness among the rural people for the need of rural sanitation but also ensuring that they actually make use of the sanitary latrines. NGOs may also open and operate Production Centres and Rural Sanitary Marts. However, only, dedicated and motivated NGOs should be involved in SBM(G) implementation. 


Under SBM(G), which is being implemented from 2.10.2014, following new initiatives have been taken :

  • Emphasis is on behavior change. Community based collective behavior change has been suggested as the preferred approach by the States. This is so, because sanitation is a mindset issue, and usage of toilets is important.
  • A large number of community based local champions are emerging that are converting SBM(G) into a citizen movement. A few success stories highlighting the role played by these champions have been recently brought out in a publication called “An Open Mind”.
  • Flexibility has been provided to the States in the implementation, since sanitation is a State subject, and the socio-economic-cultural conditions vary from State to State. Collectors’ trainings have been initiated in batches of 30 each. Around 470 Collectors from across the country have been trained. The trainings provide exposure to Collectors on community approach and success stories elsewhere.
  • In order to provide exposure to officers at their entry level itself, a training module has been developed for LBSNAA, Mussoorie. The IAS and other Group A probationers are being given training for better implementation of SBM(G), including ‘triggering’ behavior change in communities.
  • On-line monitoring has been strengthened and transparency increased in the implementation of the Programme of SBM(G) by making all the data including the names and addresses of the beneficiaries of Individual Household Latrines (IHHLs) available in the public domain / on-line monitoring system. A Mobile application for uploading photographs of toilets constructed after 2.10.2014 has been launched.
  • Cleanliness campaigns are held at regular intervals. National Sanitation Campaign was organized from 25th September, 2014 to 31st October, 2014 across the Country. Also, Water and Sanitation awareness week was celebrated across the country from 16th to 22nd March, 2015. Campaign organised in July and August 2015. Campaign again organized in September and October 2015.
  • World Hand Washing Day – World Hand Washing Day was celebrated on 15th October, 2014 and 2015. State of Madhya Pradesh had created a world record by organizing hand washing activities among more than 3 lakh children at the same time in 2014.
  • Massive media campaigns have been started at National level using Audio Visual (TV) and Audio(Radio). States are also carrying out IEC campaign.
  • Use of social media: Swachh Bharat Whatsapp group has been created involving officials of GoI and all the States. Similar groups for individual States have been formed. A Facebook page for SBM(G) has also been created.
  • Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) guidelines have been circulated to States. Several National and regional workshops have been organized to orient the States to take up Solid and Liquid waste Management Activities in the Villages.
  • Exhibition of Innovations (Indovation) organized - Three Exhibitions were organized in New Delhi on 26-27th August 2014, 23-24 January 2015 and 2-3 July2015 wherein various innovative technologies in respect of Toilet, Solid and Liquid Waste Management and Water Treatment had been showcased to various Stakeholders / Users including various State Governments, NGOs and Research & Academic Institutions.
  • An Expert Committee headed by Dr. R.A. Mashelkar to examine the Innovative Technologies has been formed. This committee has enlisted various innovative technologies and a Compendium consisting of such technologies has been published and uploaded in the website of the Ministry for benefits of various stakeholders.
  • A link has been created in the website of the Ministry to where innovators, manufactures and other stakeholders can showcase their technologies/ ideas /innovations.
  • World Bank project of Rs. 9000 crore has been approved for incentivizing the States on the basis of their independently verified progress and sustenance of sanitation.
  • ODF has been defined and guidelines for ODF verification has been issued.
  • 173 districts have been identified as Phase-1 districts to make them ODF within one year.
  • Mobile app has also been developed to view sanitation status upto GP Level.

Comprehensive web-based online monitoring systems for SBM(G) is in place with GP level data. The data is being updated at district level and state level. The system has been upgraded with a facility to upload the names and card number for beneficiaries for authentication of data. The SBM(G), MIS in the Ministry is being strengthened with States entering data of all 18.17 crore households in the country gathered from the Baseline Survey. This is to ensure rigorous Household monitoring of the coverage of sanitation access to toilets. Monthly progress of Coverage is also being monitored by name of household. A Mobile application for uploading photographs of toilets constructed after 2nd October 2014 has been launched. The photographs are geo- tagged. Mobile app has also been developed to view sanitation status upto GP Level. 175 districts have been identified as Phase-1 districts to make them ODF within one year. Special monitoring done for these districts. Third party monitoring is also being done through agencies such as National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO). A module for monitoring ODF is also available on the IMIS. Further, the IMIS provides for a module, whereby, the States/districts can transfer incentive fund directly to the community as a whole, as per the flexibility provided to the States. Periodic review meetings are conducted to review the physical and financial progress in the implementation of the SBM(G) in all the states. Beside review meetings, regular video conferencing also organized to review progress of SBM(G) and suggest corrective measures wherever required to achieve physical and financial objectives. Field visits are also made by the officers of the Ministry to see the implementation of sanitation programme. In order to get a quick feedback on innovations in addressing various implementation challenges, Rapid Action and Learning Unit (RALU) has been constituted at the National level and similar RALUs are being constituted at the State levels. The RALUs are small, flexible and specialized units to provide advice on corrective action and to upscale good practices. They are also to find quick and effective solutions and develop, share and spread those based on actual working in the field.


One of the objectives of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) is bringing about an improvement in the general quality of life in rural areas. This objective cannot be met if the general cleanliness of villages is not maintained properly. Effective management of SLWM includes management of biodegradable and non biodegradable waste, management of all grey water generated in the village and general cleanliness of the village.

Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) is important component of SBM(G) . Under this component activities like compost pits, vermi composting, biogas plants, low cost drainage, soakage channels/ pits, reuse of waste water and system for collection, segregation and disposal of household garbage and menstrual hygiene management etc. can be taken up.

Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) are required to put in place mechanisms for garbage collection and disposal and for preventing water logging. Funds for Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities with cap of Rs. 7/12/15/20 lakh are available for Gram Panchayats having upto 150/300/500/ more than 500 households. The fund sharing pattern between the Centre, State/Panchayat /Community would be in the ratio of 60:40(90:10 in case of NE and special category States). In addition to this, upto Rs. 5 lakh per GPs is also available under MGNREGS for SLWM. Funds are also available under 14th Finance Commission Grants/State funds/CSR Funds etc.


Information, Education and Communication (IEC) is an extremely important component of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) that lays the basis for successful implementation of the programme. It serves as a platform for informing, educating and persuading people to realize their roles, responsibilities and benefits accruing from investing in right sanitation practices. IEC play a very critical role in bringing behavior change on various aspects of safe sanitation, creating effective demand, usage and links to health and hygiene. The role of IEC in Demand generation for sanitary facilities is well recognized. The Sanitation programme for its success and sustainability requires empowered, well aware and skilled stakeholders capable of planning, implementation, operation, maintenance and management of sanitation schemes. The focus of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) is on behaviour change of people to adopt safe sanitation and hygiene. In order to educate the people, the programme lays emphasis on community involvement. Up to 8% of total resources can be spent on Information, Education and Communication (IEC) - of these 5% are to be spent at the State and district levels. The States have been advised to spend at least 60% of IEC funds for inter-personal communication (IPC) activities. Many States are focusing on community approach, wherein the people are directly triggered and made aware about the importance of sanitation and hygiene using some triggering tools. Besides, conventional IEC tools are also used to educate the people. Trainings of Collectors and key stakeholders are being done regularly on people’s education. Conventional IEC approaches like posters, pamphlets, wall writing, etc. may be undertaken but they have limited appeal and impact. The best way to create impact has been to follow a holistic approach that empowers communities through participatory, methodologies, which ‘trigger’ the minds of the community members to take informed decisions regarding their sanitation status. The communication at community level can be supplemented by a mass media Behavior Change Communication (BCC) initiative, which focuses on changing social and cultural norms regarding open defecation and maintaining a clean environment, which will not only change behaviors, but most importantly, support sustainability of the behavior change.

Ministry has come up with a Sanitation Hygiene and Communication Strategy (SHACS) in order to provide a broad framework to the States for the implementation of BCC activities to increase awareness among rural people, generation of demand for sanitation facilities and creation of clean environment. The focus of SHACS is on Inter Personal Communication (IPC), on which 60% of the IEC budget is proposed to be spent.


The project of World Bank Support to Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) has been approved by Union Cabinet on 23.3.2016 with project cost of Rs. 9000 crore. The Project basically provides for incentivising States on the basis of their performance in the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The performance of the States will be gauged through an independent survey based measurement of certain performance indicators, called the Disbursement-Linked Indicators (DLIs). DLIs are as under :-

  • Reduction in the prevalence of open defecation
  • Sustaining Open Defecation Free (ODF) status in Villages
  • Increase in percentage of rural population served by improved Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM)

The objectives of the project are:

  • Reduced open defecation in rural areas
  • Open defecation free villages
  • Improved solid and liquid waste management
  • Strengthened capacity of Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation

The project will improve efficacy of the SBM(G), through an incentive framework, which will reorient the States’ efforts towards achievement of desirable outputs and outcomes of SBM(G), such as reduction in open defecation, sustainable achievement of open defecation free (ODF) villages and improvement in solid and liquid waste management (SLWM). The project will also strengthen the implementation capacities of Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, States, districts and grass-root levels in terms of inter alia strengthening of behaviour change communication, capacity building and programme management etc.

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