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About SBM

To accelerate the efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation, the Prime Minister of India launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on 2nd October, 2014. The Mission Coordinator for SBM is Secretary, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS), Ministry of Jalshakti with two Sub-Missions, the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban). Together, they aim to achieve Swachh Bharat by 2019, as a fitting tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th Birth Anniversary.

In Rural India, this would mean improving the levels of cleanliness through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making villages Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitised.


The aim of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) is to achieve a clean and Open Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2nd October, 2019


  • To bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open defecation.
  • To accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2nd October 2019.
  • To motivate communities to adopt sustainable sanitation practices and facilities through awareness creation and health education.
  • To encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
  • To develop, wherever required, community managed sanitation systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.
  • To create significant positive impact on gender and promote social inclusion by improving sanitation especially in marginalized communities


The focus of the Strategy is to move towards a ‘Swachh Bharat’ by providing flexibility to State governments, as sanitation is a State subject, to decide on their implementation policy, use of funds and mechanisms, taking into account State specific requirements. The Government of India’s role is essentially to complement the efforts of the State governments through the focused programme being given the status of a Mission, recognizing its dire need for the country.

The key elements of the Strategy include

  • Augmenting the institutional capacity of districts for undertaking intensive behaviour change activities at the grassroots level
  • Strengthening the capacities of implementing agencies to roll out the programme in a time-bound manner and to measure collective outcomes
  • Incentivizing the performance of State-level institutions to implement behavioural change activities in communities

Focus on Behaviour Change

  • Behaviour change has been the key differentiator of Swachh Bharat Mission and therefore emphasis is placed on Behaviour Change Communication (BCC). BCC is not a 'stand-alone' separate activity to be done as a 'component' of SBM-G, but about nudging communities into adopting safe and sustainable sanitation practices through effective BCC.
  • Emphasis is placed on awareness generation, triggering mindsets leading to community behaviour change and demand generation for sanitary facilities in houses, schools, Anganwadis, places of community congregation, and for Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities. Since Open Defecation Free villages cannot be achieved without all the households and individuals conforming to the desired behaviour of toilet use every day and every time, community action and generation of peer pressure on the outliers are key.
Focus on Behaviour Change

Foot Soldiers of Swachh Bharat

There is a need for a dedicated, trained and properly incentivized sanitation workforce at the GP level. An army of ‘foot soldiers’ or ‘Swachhagrahis’, earlier known as ‘Swachhata Doots’ is developed and engaged through existing arrangements like Panchayati Raj Institutions, Co-operatives, ASHAs, Anganwadi workers, Women Groups, Community Based Organisations, Self-Help Groups, water linemen/pump operators etc. who are already working in the GPs, or through engaging Swachhagrahis specifically for the purpose. In case existing employees of line departments are utilised, their original Line Departments are in clear agreement to the expansion of their roles to include activities under the Swachh Bharat Mission.

Foot Soldiers of Swachh Bharat

Sanitation Technologies

Appropriate participation of the beneficiary/communities, financially or otherwise in the setting up of the toilets is advised to promote ownership and sustained use, both at the household and community levels. The built-in flexibility in the menu of options is to give the poor and the disadvantaged families’ opportunity for subsequent upgrading of their toilets depending upon their requirements and financial position and to ensure that sanitary toilets are constructed, which ensure safe confinement and disposal of faeces. An illustrative list of technology options, with cost implications is provided to meet the user preferences and location-specific needs. While the Government provides flexibility in choosing the toilet technology considering area’s topography, soil conditions etc., properly constructed Twin-Pit is considered the most preferred technology.

Sanitation Technologies

Flexibility to States

States have flexibility regarding the utilization of the IHHL incentive. The provision of incentives for IHHLs for rural households is available to States (from the IHHL component) in addition to extensive motivational and behavioral change interventions (from the IEC component). This is also used to maximize coverage so as to attain community outcomes.

Monitoring Mechanisms

A robust monitoring arrangement has been put in place to monitor Open Defecation Free status of a village, the implementation of Solid and Liquid Waste Management projects as well as the construction and use of household toilets, school and Anganwadi toilets, and Community Sanitary Complexes. The monitoring also uses a robust community led system, like Social Audit.Community-based monitoring and vigilance committees will help in creating peer pressure. States decide the delivery mechanisms to be adopted to meet the community needs.

Verification of ODF Communities

The term ‘ODF’ has been defined by GoI and indicators for the same have been developed. To institute credible process to verify villages against these indicators, an effective verification mechanism is a must. As sanitation is a State subject, and States are the key entities in implementation of the programme, the mechanism for ODF verification are best evolved by the States themselves. The role of the Centre is to cross-share processes adopted by different States and evolve a mechanism to validate a small percentage of GPs/villages declared ODF by the States and further facilitate and guide the States where there is large difference in evaluation of Centre/State.

Sustaining ODF Communities

The achievement of ODF involves working on behaviour change to a great extent, sustenance of which requires concerted efforts by the community. Many districts and States have evolved parameters to maintain sustainability of ODF.

Making Swachhata Everyone’s Business

MDWS is the nodal ministry for all activities and initiatives towards achievement of a Swachh Bharat, besides its allocated charge of SBM-Gramin. In fulfilling this responsibility, the Ministry constantly works with all other Ministries of the Government, the State Governments, local institutions, non- government and semi-government agencies, Corporates, NGOs, faith organisations, media and the rest of the stakeholders. This approach is based on the Prime Minister's call that Swachhata has to be everyone's business and not only that of the sanitation departments. A host of special initiatives and projects have come out in quick time in this process. The response of organisations who do not have sanitation as their core work, to the call of Swachh Bharat has been extremely encouraging. 

The cross cutting programs can be divided into two key categories

Inter-ministerial collaboration (IMC)

  • Namami Gange
  • Swachhata Action Plan (SAP)
  • Swachhata Pakhwada (SP)
  • Swachh Swasth Sarvatra (SSS)
  • School Sanitation
  • Anganwadi Sanitation
  • Railway Sanitation
  • Swachhata at Petrol Pumps
  • Rashtriya Swachhata Kendra

Inter-sectoral collaboration

  • Swachh Iconic Places (SIP)
  • Corporate Partnership
  • Inter-faith cooperation
  • Media Engagement
  • Parliamentarian Engagement
  • Engagement with Public Policy Researchers
  • NGO Relations

Namami Gange

  • Namami Gange Programme is an initiative of Ministry of Water Resources (MOWR), comprising of making villages on the bank of River Ganga ODF and interventions dealing with solid and liquid waste management are being implemented by MDWS.
  • A convention of Gram Panchayats was organized in Allahabad on 20th August 2016 to provide impetus to the initiative. Over 2000 GP representatives from across five states participated in this event which was attended by Union Minister, Shri Narendra Singh Tomar, and Union Minister of Water Resources, Sushri Uma Bharti.
  • All villages located across 52 districts of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal has since been made ODF by MDWS with active help of state governments.
  • Verification of the quality of ODF status in these villages has been taken up and complete verification is expected to be completed by August 07, 2017.
Namami Gange

Swachhta Action Plan (SAP)

  • SAP, a first of its kind inter-ministerial programme for Swachhta, is a concrete realization of Prime Minister’s vision that Swachhta is everyone’s business.
  • All Union Ministries/Departments have started to work for its realization in a significant manner with appropriate budget provisions. A separate budget head has been created for this by the Ministry of Finance.
  • During the financial year 2017-18, 77 Ministries/Departments have committed funds worth Rs 12468.62 cr for their SAPs.
  • SAP implementation started on 1st April 2017 and is to be reviewed quarterly
  • To monitor the implementation of SAP, a web based portal www.swachhtaactionplan.com External website that opens in a new window has been launched. It will highlight the SAP implementation by all Ministries/Departments.

Swachhta Pakhwada

  • Swachhta Pakhwada started in April 2016 with the objective of bringing a fortnight of intense focus on the issues and practices of Swachhta by engaging GOI Ministries/Departments in their jurisdictions.
  • An annual calendar is pre-circulated among the Ministries to help them plan for the Pakhwada activities.
  • The Ministries observing Swachhta Pakhwada are monitored closely using online monitoring system of Swachhta Samiksha where action plans, images, videos related to Swachhta activities are uploaded and shared.
  • After observing Swachhta Pakhwada, Ministries/ Departments announce their achievements through a press conference and other communication tools.
  • For the Pakhwada fortnight, observing ministries are considered as Swachhta Ministries and are expected to bring qualitative Swachhta improvements in their jurisdictions.
Swachhta Pakhwada

Swachhata Pakhwara Newsletter

Swachhta Pakhwada Calendar - 2017

Sr. No. Pakhwada Ministries Special Occasions
1 1st 15th January 1) Ministry of External affairs
2) Ministry of Finance
3) Ministry of Steel
Pravasi Bhartiya Diwas - 9th January
2 16th – 31st January 1) Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
2) Ministry of Civil Aviation
Republic Day - 26th January
3 1st – 15th February 1) Ministry of Health and Family welfare
2) Ministry of AYUSH
4 16th – 28th February 1) Ministry of Commerce and Industry
2) Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region
5 1st – 15th March 1) Ministry of Women and Child Development
2) Ministry of Tribal Affairs
International Women’s Day – 8th March
6 16th – 31st March 1) Ministry of Water Resources, River and Development and Ganga Rejuvenation
2) Ministry of Shipping
World Water Day – 22nd March
7 1st – 15th April 1) Ministry of Law and Justice
2) Ministry of Parliamentary Affaris
3) Dept of Atomic Energy
Ambekar Jayanti – 14th April
8 16th – 30th April 1) Ministry of Culture
2) Ministry of Tourism
World Heritage Day – 18th April
9 1st – 15th May 1) Ministry of Labour and Employment
2) Ministry of Textiles
International Labour Day – 1st May
10 16th – 31st May 1) Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare
2) Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution
11 1st – 15th June 1) Ministry of Environment & Forests and Climate change
2) Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
3) Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions
4)Department of Atomic Energy
World Environment Day – 5th June
12 16th – 31st June 1)Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
2) Ministry of Earth Sciences
3) Department of space
13 1st – 15th July 1) Ministry of Communications
2) Ministry of Power
14 16th – 31st July 1) Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas
2) Ministry of Road and Transport Highways
15 1st – 15th August 1) Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports
2) Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology
International Youth Day – 12th August
16 16th – 31th August 1) Ministry of Railways
2) Ministry of Coal
3) Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers
17 1st – 15st September 1) Ministry of Human Resource Development(DoSEL and DoHE) Teacher’s Day – 5th September
18 16th – 30th September 1) Ministry of Tourism
2) Ministry of Culture
World Tourism Day – 27th September
19 1st – 15th October 1) Ministry of Panchayati Raj
2) Ministry of Rural Development
3) Ministry of Urban Development
3rd Anniversary of Swachh Bharat Mission on 2nd October 2017
20 16th – 31st October 1) Ministry of Food Processing Industries
2) Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
World Food Day – 16th October
21 1st – 15th November 1) Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship
2) Ministry of Science and Technology
22 16th – 30th November 1) Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation
2) Ministry of Minority Affairs
World Toilet Day – 19th November
23 1st – 15th December 1) Ministry of Defence
2) Ministry of Home Affairs
3) Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
Navy Day – 4th December, Armed Forces Flag Day – 7th December
24 16th – 31st December 1) Minister of Corporate Affairs
2) Ministry of Heavy Industries and PE
3) Ministry of Mines

Swachh Swasth Sarvatra (SSS)

  • Joint initiative between the MDWS and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW).
  • Objective : To build on and leverage the achievements of two complementary programmes – SBM and Kayakalp (MoHFW)
  • The initiative involves focusing on WASH parameters in selected hospitals, priority ODF action in areas around identified health centres, and advanced sanitation training for doctors and health workers.
  • MoHFW has identified and shared 532 Kayakalp Award winning PHCs list with MDWS
  • MDWS has mapped those GPs where these PHCs are situated to complete ODF on priorities basis.
  • MDWS has finalized a training module to train 700+ Health Workers of Kayakalp Award winning CHCs/PHCs on WASH parameters, training will be conducted by UNICEF.

Swachhta at petrol pumps

  • The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas has developed a Mobile app namely swachhta@PetrolPump
  • This will help to monitor and maintain the cleanliness of the toilets and can be downloaded from all App stores.
  • Provision of construction of toilet clusters close to petrol pumps
Swachhta at petrol pumps

Rashtriya Swachhta Kendra (RSK)

  • This was announced by the Hon’ble PM on April 10, 2017, during the centenary celebrations of Champaran Satyagraha.
  • To be located opposite to Bapu’s Samadhi at Rajghar, RSK is planned to disseminate all information on sanitation matters and advanced toilet technology among people. It will also showcase ongoing SBM efforts across the country as well as history of sanitation in India, Interministerial coordination initiatives, interactive programme and a Swachhta learning centre.

Swachh Iconic Places (SIP)

  • Under the inspiration of Hon’ble Prime Minister, the Ministry has taken up a multi-stakeholder initiative focusing on cleaning up 100 places across India that are “iconic” due to their heritage, religious and/or cultural significance.
  • The goal of the Initiative is to improve the cleanliness conditions at these places to a distinctly higher level
  • This initiative is in partnership with Ministries of Urban Development, Tourism and Culture with MDWS being the nodal ministry.
  • All Iconic Sites have designated PSUs for financial and technical support.
Swachh Iconic Places

The 10 iconic sites which were taken up in the first phase are

  • Ajmer Sharif Dargah, Ajmer, Rajasthan
  • CST, Mumbai, Maharashtra
  • Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab
  • Kamakhya Temple, Guwahati, Assam
  • Maikarnika Ghat, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
  • Meenakshi Temple, Madurai, Tamil Nadu
  • Shri Mata Vaishno Devi, Katra, J&K
  • Shree Jagannath Temple, Puri, Odisha
  • The Taj Mahal, Agra, Uttar Pradesh
  • Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh 

The ten sites which have been added in the second phase are

PSU Sponsors for SIP Sites – Phase 1

Sr. No. Iconic Places Sponsors
1 Ajmer Sharif Dargah, Ajmer, Rajasthan Hindustan Zinc India Ltd.
2 CST, Mumbai, Maharashtra State Bank of India (SBI)
3 Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL)
4 Kamakhya Temple, Guwahati, Assam Oil India Limited
5 Maikarnika Ghat, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh Northern Coal Field Ltd.
6 Meenakshi Temple, Madurai, Tamil Nadu Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL)
7 Shri Mata Vaishno Devi, Katra, J&K National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO)
8 Shree Jagannath Temple, Puri, Odisha Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL)
9 The Taj Mahal, Agra, Uttar Pradesh Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL)
10 Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh Oil and Natural Gas Corporation & Neyveli Lignite Corporation India limited

PSU Sponsors for SIP Sites – Phase 2

Sr. No. Iconic Places Sponsors
1 Gangotri, Uttarakhand -
2 Yamunotri, Uttarakhand -
3 Mahakaleshwar Temple, Ujjain -
4 Char Minar, Hyderabad -
5 Church and Convent of St. Francis of Assissi, Goa -
6 Adi Shankaracharya’s abode Kaladi, Ernakulam, Kerala -
7 Gomateshwar, Shravanbelgola, Karnataka -
8 Baijnath Dham, Deoghar, Jharkhand -
9 Gaya Tirth, Bihar -
10 Somnath temple, Gujarat -

Swachh Bharat Kosh (SBK)

  • MDWS has been pro-actively mobilizing funds for Swachh Bharat Kosh. It was started in Oct,2014 and includes both individuals contributions as well as corporates.
  • The Ministry had organized two detailed meetings with the corporate sector and has taken part in many other interactions with both public and private sector corporates, following which the contributions to the Kosh have gone up.
  • The total donations to SBK yearwise are Rs 159.6 cr (2014-15), Rs 253.24 cr (2015-16), Rs 245.04 cr (2016-17) and Rs 3.78 cr (till July 13 in 2017-18). Funds of around Rs 332.64 cr has been released from SBK till now to various states.

Inter-faith Cooperation

  • The Ministry is working with GIWA and other faith-based organisations to take forward the goals of Swachh Bharat Mission
  • This is being done across several areas including villages on the banks of river Ganga
  • Faith organisations are also coming forward to make couple of River Ganga bank villages ‘Ganga Grams’ in Uttarakhand.
Inter-faith Cooperation
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