FAQs

FAQs- SBM Phase II

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Phase II of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) [SBM(G)], will focus on sustainability of Open Defecation Free (ODF) status and Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) in rural India. The programme will work towards ensuring that no one is left behind and everyone uses a toilet. SBM(G) Phase-II will be implemented from 2020-21 to 2024-25 in a mission mode.

Government of India launched Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) on 2nd October, 2014 to accelerate efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage, improve cleanliness and eliminate open defecation in India by 2nd October 2019. The nation-wide campaign was a jan andolan aimed at eliminating open defecation during the period 2014 to 2019 through mass scale behavior change, construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets, and establishing an accountable mechanism for monitoring toilet use. Under the mission, all villages, States/UTs of India declared themselves ODF by 2 October 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi

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  • New eligible households will be provided incentive @ Rs.12000 per household for construction of IHHL, which is the existing norm of financial incentive. Only new eligible households will be provided the incentive money. Ineligible households will be motivated to construct the toilet on their own.
  • The Community Sanitary Complex has been renamed as Community Managed Sanitation Complex (CMSC). The financial assistance for the CMSC has been enhanced from Rs.2,00,000/- to Rs. 3,00,000/- with sharing of 30% funds from 15th Finance Commission grants to Rural Local Bodies, and remaining 70% under SBM(G).
  • Provision for IEC and Capacity Building will be at 5% of total project cost, with 2% to be utilised at the Central level (Government of India level) and 3% at State/district level.
  • Provision for administrative cost will be 1% of the project cost.
  • Under SBM-G Phase II, block and district level interventions have also been introduced for certain activities related to SLWM.
  • Generally, funding for SLWM will be on a per capita basis instead of earlier provision based on the number of households in a GP. While 30% of the funding for village level SLWM activities will be from 15th Finance Commission grants, the remaining 70% will be borne under SBM(G). However, for some activities such as Plastic Waste Management at block level and model GOBAR-dhan projects at district level, there will be a fixed amount of financial assistance for a block and a district.
  • For the first time, 50% funds of 15th Finance Commission grants to rural local bodies is earmarked for water and sanitation as tied funds.
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The main objectives of SBM(G) Phase-II are :

  • Maintaining the ODF status of the villages, Gram Panchayats, Blocks, Districts and States over a continued period of time
  • Ensuring that people continuously use the toilets built and practice safe and hygienic behaviours
  • Ensuring that villages have access to SLWM arrangements for overall cleanliness in rural areas
  • Bringing about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas
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The main activities are :
(i) Construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHL)
(ii) Construction of Community Managed Sanitation Complexes (CMSCs)
(iii) Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) activities
(iv) Continued Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) and Capacity Strengthening at all levels

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The SBM(G) Phase II would focus on reinforcing the Jan andolan on sanitation by engaging everyone in the task of sustaining the ODF outcomes achieved and supporting villages with effective SLWM arrangements. The strategy provides flexibility at State and District level regarding implementation of the programme as per their local needs within the framework of Phase II guidelines. The Government of India would provide overall funding support, coordination and monitoring.

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SBM(G) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with fund sharing pattern between Centre and States being 90:10 for North-Eastern States, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and UT of Jammu and Kashmir; 100% from Centre for remaining Union Territories (UTs), and 60:40 for other States.

Components Financial assistance
Incentive for construction of IHHLs (BPLs and Identified APLs) Rs. 12,000/-
(including for water storage facility for maintaining hygiene, handwashing and cleanliness)
SLWM activities Village level SLWM activities Village size Financial support
Upto 5000 population Solid Waste Management: Upto Rs.60 per capita.
Greywater Management: Upto Rs.280 per capita
Above 5000 population Solid Waste Management: Upto Rs.45 per capita
Greywater Management: Upto Rs.660 per capita
Note:
1. 30% of this amount will be borne by the GPs from their 15th Finance Commission grants.
2. Each village can utilize a total Rs. 1 lakh based on their requirements.
3. Labour cost of construction of compost pits, soak pits and greywater systems will be borne through convergence with MGNREGS.
District level SLWM activities
Plastic Waste Management Unit (one in each Block) Upto Rs.16 lakh per unit
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) Upto Rs.230 per capita
GOBAR-Dhan Projects Upto Rs.50 lakh per District
Community Managed Sanitary Complex Rs. 3 Lakh
Note: 30% of this will be borne by GPs from 15th FC
IEC and Capacity Building Up to 5% of the total funding for programmatic components (up to 3% to be used at State/District levels and up to 2% at Central level)
Administrative Expenses Up to 1% of the total funding for programmatic components
Revolving Fund Up to 5% of Project outlay
subject to max. Rs. 1.5 Cr per District for providing loan to Rural Sanitary Marts and Production centres; which is to be recovered in equal installments of 12-18 months.
Flexi Funds The States can use flexi funds as per Ministry of Finance guidelines issued in this regard from time to time for Innovations/technology options at the State level to meet the local needs and requirements within the overall objective of the Scheme.

State/UT Governments will have the flexibility to provide higher incentive/additional funding from other sources such as 15th Finance Commission Wnts, MPLAD/MLALAD/CSR funds or through convergence with MGNREGS or other schemes of the State or Central Governments, etc.

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Incentive of Rs.12,000/- for construction of IHHL will be continued for all new eligible households:
1. All Below Poverty Line (BPL) households
2. Identified Above Poverty Line (APL) households which include:
a. Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes
b. Small and marginal farmers
c. Landless labourers with homestead
d. Households having physically handicapped person
e. Women headed households

All new ineligible APL households will be encouraged to construct toilets from their own resources.

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Rs.12,000 is an incentive amount to motivate households to construct toilets and use them. This amount is sufficient for construction of a twin pit toilet in rural areas. Moreover, this is not the reimbursement of the cost of toilet which may be higher as well. If any additional requirement is there, it may be borne by the beneficiary.

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O&M of such complexes will be the responsibility of the GPs. For ensuring O&M of CMSCs, the GPs should give emphasis to PPP model or any other revenue generation models (such as pay and use models for public places of large gathering) for long term sustainability of such CMSCs

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Having a CMSC in a village is essential to cater to the need of households that do not have adequate place for construction of IHHL, as also migrant labourers, large congregations in melas/ tourist places/ religious places, etc., in order to ensure that sustainability of ODF status is continued and that no one is left behind without access to sanitation facilities. Such CMSC shall consist of an appropriate number of toilet seats, bathing cubicles, washing platforms, wash basins, etc. The GP will decide upon a suitable location for construction of CMSC that is easily accessible to all, having adequate water supply and where long-term O&M is ensured. For construction of CMSC, priority shall be given to the villages with migrant labourers/floating population and villages having predominant SC/ST habitations.

Community toilet:

A community toilet is a facility which is built when there is no required space or funds available for constructing IHHLs. It is used, owned and maintained by community members or local governments.

Public toilet:

A public toilet is a facility which is built for the use of a floating population such as migrant workers, visitors, and tourists, etc., who visit the village area frequently because of its commercial, religious or tourist attractions.

Under SBM(G), funding norms for both types of toilets will be sent.

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One of the objectives of SBM(G) is bringing about an improvement in the overall cleanliness in villages for which SLWM is one of the key factors. To achieve the desired result, a large no. of activities can be taken up under SLWM. However, some major activities have been identified under SLWM and an illustrative list of activities have been given in the table below which is not exhaustive:

Segregation bins at households to be exist
Segregation bins at households to be exist
Compost Pits,Tri-cycles/other vehicles, Storage for Plastic Waste
Setting up of segregation, storage and compost premises
Wages for collection and segregation
Equipments for cleaning the premises and segregation of waste
O&M for Solid Waste Management
Soak pits
Greywater Management systems (WSP etc.)
Aeration of big ponds
Drainage channels
O&M for Greywater Management
Menstrual waste management (Incinerators-CPCB/SPCB approved)
Plastic Waste Management Units (PWMU)
Transportation from village storage point to PWMU including vehicle
O&M for Plastic Waste Management Unit
Trenching
Faecal Sludge Management Plant
Co-treatment
Mechanised Emptying & transportation of faecal matter from Septic tanks/single pits
O&M for Faecal Sludge Management
GOBAR-dhan model projects
Scaling up of GOBAR-Dhan projects (minimum 10 per block) on the lines of financial assistance under NNBOMP of MNRE
O&M for GOBAR-Dhan Projects
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SLWM activities to be prioritized in the ganga riparian villages and then in the villages situated on the banks of other rivers, coastal areas and having other important water bodies. For grey water management, usually bigger villages (with more than 5000 population) to be given priority. However, that should be done in convergence with Jal Jeevan Mission/other water supply programmes of the State Governments (the villages where piped water supply has been provided or planned).

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The funds under SBM(G) can be utilized for the following SLWM activities :-

(a) Solid Waste Management
(i) Organic Waste
● Composting: Vermi/Pit/Nadep
● Tri-cycle/other vehicles for collection of waste from households to village level collection, segregation and storage centre
● GOBAR-Dhan Projects
(ii) Plastic Waste
● Storage facility at village level
● Material Recovery Facility at District/Block level
(b) Liquid Waste Management
(i) Grey Water Management
● Soak Pits (in smaller villages i.e. upto 5000 population), with flexibility to take up greywater management systems such as WSP or any other technologies, etc. with additional fund support from 15th Finance Commission grants or through convergence with other Central/State Governments schemes.
● Ponds: Waste Stabilisation Pond (WSP) (Apart from community soak pits, in bigger villages i.e. above 5000 population greywater management system such as WSP or any other technologies, etc. can also be taken up.)

[Drainage channels (drainage of greywater from household up to the disposal or management) have to be provided by the GPs with their 15th Finance Commission grants and/or through convergence with MGNREGS or other schemes of State or Central Governments.]
(ii) Faecal Sludge Management
● Trenching
● Co-Treatment
● Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant (FSTP)

[Emptying of faecal sludge from septic tanks/single pits and transport will be taken up through appropriate business model or/and with the 15th Finance Commission grants to GPs or/and through convergence with other schemes of State or Central Governments.]

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A. Village level SLWM activities

Village size Financial support
Upto 5000 population Upto Rs.340 per capita
Above 5000 population Upto Rs.705 per capita
(for Solid Waste Management upto Rs.45 per capita and for Greywater Management upto Rs.660 per capita)

Note-1: Each village can utilize minimum of total rupees 1 lakh based on their requirements

Note-2: 30% share will be borne by GPs from 15th Finance Commission grants.

B. District/Block level SLWM activities

Activities Financial support
Plastic Waste Management Unit (one in each Block) Upto Rs.16 lakh per unit
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) Upto Rs.230 per capita
GOBAR-Dhan model Projects Upto Rs.50 lakh per District

Additional funds for any of the SLWM activities could be met from 15th Finance Commission grants, MPLAD/MLALAD/CSR funds etc. or through convergence with other schemes of the State or Central Governments.

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The Guiding Principles under Phase-II of SBM(G) are as under :-

  • Community assets to be prioritized and financed as far as possible: While individual assets are encouraged, the programme will prioritize creation of community assets so that comprehensive management of solid and liquid waste at village level is achieved. Community assets will be financed as far as possible, while IEC channels will be used to motivate Households to construct individual assets wherever feasible
  • Funds under SBM(G) Phase-II will be released to the State/UTs only after the undertaking provided by the respective government that funds earmarked under 15th Finance Commission grants for sanitation activities are or being devolved to rural local bodies.
  • Utilisation of existing infrastructure wherever possible: States shall ensure that existing infrastructure is put to use/rejuvenated/upgraded instead of creating new infrastructure in such villages
  • Convergence with other schemes: States shall use funds, functionaries and functions of other programmes through appropriate convergence mechanism to achieve SBM(G) Phase-II outcomes. Given the common objectives of rural water supply management, grey water management etc. under Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM), convergence for the functional components under SBM(G) Phase-II and JJM will be ensured.
  • The cost of drainage channels will be met by the GPs from 15th Finance Commission grants or through convergence with MGNREGS or other schemes of State or Central Governments. Labour cost of construction of compost pits, storage of solid waste, soak pits and greywater systems (waste stabilization pond etc) which is estimated to be 40% of the total cost will be borne through convergence with MGNREGS.
  • Convergence with National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) of Ministry of Rural Development will also be made for involving SHGs as vehicles for Behaviour Change Communication. And, training plans for imparting trainings to Swachhagrahis, other field functionaries and masons will be prepared in convergence with Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.
  • Activities related to maximum reuse to be promoted: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle will be essential elements of program.
  • Business models based on principles of cost sharing, cost recovery and revenue generation including borrowing and interest subvention, with the approval of Ministry of Finance, will be used, wherever feasible, to implement the SBM(G) Phase-II.
  • Operation and Maintenance of the assets created under the programme will be financed and managed by community/GP/district.
  • Community mobilization and participation for maintenance of the assets created under the scheme will be ensured by the States through appropriate models.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) funds will be explored by the States for creation and O&M of community assets as well as IEC.
  • Technologies with least operation and maintenance costs are encouraged: Selected technologies that are easy to operate and maintain at low O&M cost.
  • States to choose technologies appropriate to their local conditions and needs: Choose technologies best suited to the hydrogeology and topography of the area.
  • Clustering of villages: For SLWM activities priority will be given to bigger villages with sufficient flexibility to the States/UTs as per the local condition. States will cluster villages as per suitable criteria, such as, transport distance, time, etc. for locating cluster level resource centres to achieve economies of scale.
  • For construction of CMSCs, emphasis will be given to PPP mode for setting up of such projects and self-revenue generation model for meeting the O&M costs of such complexes. Possibilities of funds to be provided to the Projects in challenge mode will be explored in business models.
  • Before FSM is proposed with SBM(G) Phase-II funding support, feasibility of onsite treatment of faecal matter by retrofitting of single leach pits to twin leach pits (or equivalent technologies) (through IEC/IPC or States’ own/other sources) will be considered. However, where FSM is still required, the States will ensure mechanical cleaning/emptying of pits and transportation through convergence with the Schemes of other Ministries/Departments.
  • Before GOBAR-dhan projects are set up, States will ensure feasibility for running the project e.g. near gaushalas etc. for uninterrupted availability of organic waste.
  • An output-outcome framework will be included in guidelines. Output-outcome monitoring will be done on a regular basis and third party evaluation will be based on the proposed output-outcome framework.
  • Villages situated at the banks of Ganga will be prioritised. The next priority will be for villages along other rivers and water bodies (lakes etc).
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Under the earlier provisions, the financial assistance for SLWM in smaller GPs was much higher than that of their requirements (as their requirements are limited to construction of compost pits and soak pits) while for the larger GPs it was not adequate (they need to take up Waste Stabilisation Pond (WSP) etc for greywater management which require large amount of funds). Further, under the earlier norms, all the GPs having more than 500 Households could get a maximum upto Rs.20 lakh only for all the components of SBM(G).

The new norms have been provided on per capita basis except for plastic waste management unit and GOBAR-dhan; and separate norms for different activities of SLWM have now been specified. Higher rates have been prescribed for larger GPs to enable them to construct WSPs, etc for greywater management.

Comparison of funds availability for SLWM under new norms and earlier norms is given in table below. It can be noted that for the villages having more than 5000 population, the fund availability for SLWM will be much higher under the new norms than under the earlier norms.

(Amount in Rs. lakh)
No. of HH Under new SLWM norms Under earlier SLWM norms
(estimated 5 persons per HH) For SWM and soak pits/ Greywater management systems (WSP/DEWATS, etc)
[For villages upto 5000 population: @ Rs.340 per capita (Rs.60 for SWM + Rs.280 for soakpits]
For FSM at district level(@ Rs.230 per capita) Total amount for SWM, Greywater & FSM(upto)[(2)+(3)] Total SLWM amount (upto Rs.7/12/15/20 lakh for GPs
[For villages above 5000 population: @ Rs.705 per capita (Rs.45 for SWM + Rs.660 for greywater system] upto 150/300/500/above 500 HH respectively)
1 2 3 4 5
150 2.55 1.73 4.28 7.00
300 5.10 3.45 8.55 12.00
500 8.50 5.75 14.25 15.00
600 10.20 6.90 17.10 20.00
700 11.90 8.05 19.95 20.00
800 13.60 9.20 22.80 20.00
1000 17.00 11.50 11.50 20.00
1100 38.78 12.65 51.43 20.00
1200 42.30 13.80 56.10 20.00
1500 52.88 17.25 70.13 20.00
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ODF sustainability means sustaining the ODF status achieved in a village by ensuring that everyone including new households in the village continues to use toilets and do not defecate in the open.

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In order to ensure ODF sustainability, the States/UTs can develop their own mechanism. However, it is advised that at least the following activities may be taken up in the villages:

  • Covering new households by providing them access to toilet
  • Retrofitting of technologically unsafe toilets
  • Faecal sludge management for such toilets where retrofitting not possible
  • Continuous engagement of Swachhagrahis for motivating the people to sustain their behaviour change to avoid slip back in usage
  • Continue to have provision for Nigrani Samitis, morning follow up by officials etc.
  • Taking up sustainability verification
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The District Swachh Bharat Mission [DSBM(G)] will continue as the implementing agency for SBM(G) phase II. However, necessary changes in the human resource structure or reorientation of existing manpower may be done in accordance with the requirements under SBM(G) phase II for ODF plus activities. As the line departments will play a catalytic role in implementation of the programme, the role of the District Collector/Magistrate/CEO Zilla Panchayat shall be pivotal.

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As per the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 1992, sanitation has been included in the 11th Schedule and is the responsibility of the panchayat. Zila Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti and Gram Panchayats will have the responsibility for activities at district, block and village level respectively. However, as the programme will be implemented by taking villages as a unit, Gram Panchayats will have the main role in the implementation of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) phase II. The Gram Panchayats with the support of VO/ NGOs will mobilize the people for the construction of toilets, assess the requirements of community assets for saturating the villages with respect to ODF plus activities, take responsibility for construction and O & M of such community assets and monitoring of ODF sustainability. GPs will also conduct sustainability verification of all its villages every year. Panchayats may also open and operate the Production Centres/Rural Sanitary Marts.

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NGOs have an important role in the implementation of SBM(G) in the rural areas. They may be involved in Planning, IEC activities as well as in setting up PCs or RSMs. The NGOs can also be involved in O & M of the community assets created under the programme through various revenue generation models.

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The State/UTs will be allowed to utilize up to 3% of programme funds for IEC and CB activities as per State and District plan. Emphasis will be given on capacity strengthening and knowledge sharing at all levels.

The capacity building initiatives for capacity strengthening of PRIs and ground functionaries will continue. States/ Districts may plan new initiatives to strengthen capacities at all levels for ODF sustainability and Solid Liquid Waste Management.

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The States and Districts have been advised to make institutional arrangements with adequate human resources and skill sets at State, district and village level to support rollout of SBM (G) Phase II interventions.

To further strengthen the ideal human resource constitution at various levels as per the SBM (G) guidelines, consultants at State and District level can be continued to support program rollout under various functional areas. While the State may decide on the specializations, experience and skill sets of all consultants (Specialist) positions, they may be guided by the guidelines for SBM Phase II and make additional appointments, as necessary.

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Effective monitoring of outcomes will be a prime focus to be measured in terms of ODF sustainability and villages with effective Solid and Liquid waste management arrangements. Monitoring of outputs will also be done for administrative purposes such as monitoring of expenditure and assets created. The monitoring framework will essentially be of two types. The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation has developed an online monitoring system for SBM (G). Village level data with respect to ODF sustainability and status of Solid and Liquid Waste Management shall be provided on the MIS by Districts and States. States shall be permitted to update the status, if needed, with the concurrence of DDWS. States/UTs may conduct periodical evaluation studies on the implementation of Phase II of SBM (G). These evaluations could be used for course correction and improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the programme. Evaluation studies may be conducted through reputed institutions and organizations decided by the State and copies of the reports should be furnished to the Government of India. Remedial action should be taken by the States/UTs on the basis of these evaluation studies. The cost of such studies can be charged to the Administrative Charges component of SBM(G).

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Sanitation is a behavioural issue and its social acceptance and internalization is crucial for its sustainability. Current practices regarding sanitation may be studied and efforts will be made towards strengthening new norms that have emerged with the achievement of ODF status. The areas where behaviour change is required after achievement of ODF subjects, will be identified and conveyed through mediums and tools with maximum impact. Five key subjects, as shown in the schematic may be concentrated upon during IEC- Continued Usage, Toilet Technology, O&M of assets created under the programme, Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) - capacity building of key stakeholders/influencers and strengthening of community systems. Key messages in all the above components may be developed and contextualized addressing the key barriers. The States and Districts should continue to engage with communities and families for sustaining the ODF outcomes by using innovative and inclusive IEC interventions. Skilled human resources and Swachhagrahis involved in IEC planning and delivery at State, District and village levels should be retained and incentivised as suggested in the guidelines of Government of India and as decided by the State Governments. The IEC and Capacity Building component will have a provision upto 5% of the total funding for programmatic components (up to 2% at Central level and up to 3% at State/district levels).

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SBM-G Phase-II will be a novel model of convergence between different verticals of financing and various schemes of GoI and State governments.

As in the interim report of 15th Finance Commission for 2020-21, 50% of 15th Finance Commission Grants to Rural Local Bodies has been provided as tied grants for water and sanitation and it is expected that the similar kind of funds will be provided in the subsequent years also, 30% of 15th Finance Commission grants has been converged for village level community assets allowed under SBM-G phase II funding.

Besides, the activities allowed under SBM-G, 15th FC grants for sanitation activities can also be used for other SLWM activities, O & M of community assets etc.

MGNREGS funds can also be used for various activities such as construction of soak pits, compost pits, drainage channels, providing labour costs for creation of community assets etc.

For scaling up of GOBAR-Dhan projects, convergence with NNBOMP scheme of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy can be done for households and community level projects and convergence with SATAT scheme of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas can be done for CBG plants.

For co treatment of faecal sludge, convergent planning with existing FSTPs set up under GoI or State governments schemes or established by a Pvt. entity will require to be worked out.

SBM(G) phase II programme will also focus on convergence in capacity building and IEC. Self Help Groups (SHGs) may be involved as vehicles for Behaviour Change Communication in convergence with National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM). Training plans for imparting training to Swachhagrahis, other field functionaries and masons may be prepared - at different levels-in convergence with programmes of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.

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For sanitation related activities in rural areas, besides SBM(G) grants and 15th Finance Commission tied grants for sanitation, the following funds can be utilized/explored to meet the additional funds requirements and to take the activities not funded under SBM(G) :-

  • MGNREGS funds
  • MPLAD/MLALAD
  • CSR funds
  • Business model
  • PPP model
  • Any other schemes of GoI, State Governments that permits utilization of funds for sanitation related activities
  • Community contribution

FAQs- SBM Phase I

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The Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) launched on 2nd October, 2014, by modifying the erstwhile Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA), is a community-led and people-oriented programme aimed at universalizing safe sanitation. Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) is only sanitation programme implemented by Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.

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The Government launched Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) on 2nd October, 2014 to accelerate efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage, improve cleanliness and eliminate open defecation in India by 2nd October 2019.The program is considered India’s biggest drive to improve sanitation, hygiene and cleanliness in the country. The effectiveness of the Programme is predicated upon generating demand for toilets leading to their construction and sustained use by all the household members. It also aims to promote better hygiene behaviour amongst the population and improve cleanliness by initiating Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) projects in the villages of the country. This is to be bolstered with adequate implementation capacities in terms of trained personnel, financial incentives and systems and procedures for planning and monitoring. The emphasis is on stronger focus on behaviour change intervention including interpersonal communication; strengthening implementation and delivery mechanisms down to the GP level; and giving States flexibility to design delivery mechanisms that take into account local cultures, practices, sensibilities and demands.

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  • Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) is restructured into Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
  • The Unit cost of the IHHL enhanced from Rs.10,000/- to Rs. 12,000/- so as to provide for water availability, including for storing, hand-washing and cleaning of toilets.
  • Central share for IHHLs to be Rs. 7200/- (60%) from Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The State share to be Rs. 4800/- (40%). For North Eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir and Special category states, the central share will be 10,800/- and the State share Rs. 1,200/-(90%:10%). Additional contributions from other sources are permitted.
  • Provision for IEC will be at 8% of total Project cost, with 3% to be utilised at the Central level and 5 % at State level.
  • Provision for Administrative Cost will be 2% of the Project cost. Sharing pattern will be 60:40 between Centre and State.
  • The part funding from MGNREGA for the payment of Incentives for the construction of Individual House Hold Latrines (IHHLs) is discontinued and the entire amount of GOI share paid from the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
  • SLWM funding will be at 60:40 sharing pattern. For CSCs it will be 60:30:10 (Centre: State: Community). CSCs will be constructed only when the Gram Panchayat takes the responsibility of ownership and a sustainable operation and maintenance system is assured.
  • The responsibility of construction of all School toilets is transferred to the Department of School Education and Literacy and of Anganwadi toilets to the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • Monitoring mechanism will be strengthened. Outputs (Construction) and Outcomes (Usage) will be monitored.
  • A menu of accredited Technology options for Toilets and SLWM projects shall be made available to the States by the Swachh Bharat Mission. The Mission will provide a list of minimal acceptable technologies for which assistance under this programme will be available. However use of any superior technology will be permitted at additional cost to be borne by the beneficiary.
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The main objectives of SBM(G) are :

  • Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open defecation.
  • The Unit cost of the IHHL enhanced from Rs.10,000/- to Rs. 12,000/- so as to provide for water availability, including for storing, hand-washing and cleaning of toilets.
  • Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2nd October 2019.
  • Motivate Communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions to adopt sustainable sanitation practices and facilities through awareness creation and health education.
  • Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
  • Develop where required, Community managed sanitation systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.
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The main activities are :

  • Construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHL)
  • Construction of Community Sanitary Complexes (CSCs).
  • Solid Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) activities.
  • Information, Education and Communication (IEC) and Human Resource Development (HRD) activities.
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What are the incentives for IHHL toilets?
Sr. No. Component Amount earmarked as percent of the SBM(G) project outlay Contribution Share
(GOI)
Contribution Share
(State)
Contribution Share
(Beneficiary Household/ Community)
1. Individual Household Latrines Actual amount required for full coverage Rs.7200 (60%) (10,800 (90%) in case of NE States, J&K and Special category States ) Rs.4800(40%)(1,200 (10%) in case of NE States, J&K and Special category States )
2. Community Sanitary Complexes Actual amount required for full coverage 60% 30% 10%
3. Solid/Liquid Waste Management (Capital Cost) Actual amount as per SLWM project cost within limits permitted 60% 40%
4. IEC Component 8% of Allocation (3% at national level; 5% at state level) 60% 40%
5. Administrative costs 2% of State Allocation 60% 40%

For NE and Special Category States sharing pattern is in ratio of 90:10

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Open Defecation Free (ODF) has been defined as:

“ODF is the termination of faecal-oral transmission, defined by:

  • No visible faeces found in the environment/village; and
  • Every household as well as public/community institutions using safe technology option for disposal of faeces

(Tip: Safe technology option means no contamination of surface soil, ground water or surface water; excreta inaccessible to flies and animals; and freedom from odour and unsightly condition)”

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The SBM(G) is being implemented in the districts of the States/UTs with support from the GOI and the respective State/UT Governments.. At the district level, Zila Panchayat implements the project. In case, Zila Panchayat is not functional, District Water and Sanitation Mission (DWSM) can implement the SBM(G). Similarly, at the block and the Panchayat levels, Panchayat Samiti and respective Gram Panchayats are involved in the implementation of the SBM(G).

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As per the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 1992, sanitation is included in the 11th Schedule and is the responsibility of the panchayat. At the district level, Zila Panchayat implements the project. Similarly, at the block and the Panchayat levels, Panchayat Samiti and respective Gram Panchayats are involved in the implementation of SBM(G). Gram Panchayats have the pivotal role in the implementation of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) with VO/ NGOs to mobilize for the construction of toilets and also maintain the clean environment by way of safe disposal of wastes. They have the main responsibility in the O&M of the common facilities constructed. Panchayats may also open and operate the Production Centres/Rural Sanitary Marts.

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NGOs have an important role in the implementation of SBM(G) in the rural areas. They may be involved in IEC activities as well as in setting up PCs or RSMs. Their services are required to be utilized not only for bringing about awareness among the rural people for the need of rural sanitation but also ensuring that they actually make use of the sanitary latrines. NGOs may also open and operate Production Centres and Rural Sanitary Marts. However, only, dedicated and motivated NGOs should be involved in SBM(G) implementation.

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Under SBM(G), which is being implemented from 2.10.2014, following new initiatives have been taken :

  • Emphasis is on behavior change. Community based collective behavior change has been suggested as the preferred approach by the States. This is so, because sanitation is a mindset issue, and usage of toilets is important.
  • A large number of community based local champions are emerging that are converting SBM(G) into a citizen movement. A few success stories highlighting the role played by these champions have been recently brought out in a publication called “An Open Mind”.
  • Flexibility has been provided to the States in the implementation, since sanitation is a State subject, and the socio-economic-cultural conditions vary from State to State. Collectors’ trainings have been initiated in batches of 30 each. Around 470 Collectors from across the country have been trained. The trainings provide exposure to Collectors on community approach and success stories elsewhere.
  • In order to provide exposure to officers at their entry level itself, a training module has been developed for LBSNAA, Mussoorie. The IAS and other Group A probationers are being given training for better implementation of SBM(G), including ‘triggering’ behavior change in communities.
  • On-line monitoring has been strengthened and transparency increased in the implementation of the Programme of SBM(G) by making all the data including the names and addresses of the beneficiaries of Individual Household Latrines (IHHLs) available in the public domain / on-line monitoring system. A Mobile application for uploading photographs of toilets constructed after 2.10.2014 has been launched.
  • Cleanliness campaigns are held at regular intervals. National Sanitation Campaign was organized from 25th September, 2014 to 31st October, 2014 across the Country. Also, Water and Sanitation awareness week was celebrated across the country from 16th to 22nd March, 2015. Campaign organised in July and August 2015. Campaign again organized in September and October 2015.
  • World Hand Washing Day – World Hand Washing Day was celebrated on 15th October, 2014 and 2015. State of Madhya Pradesh had created a world record by organizing hand washing activities among more than 3 lakh children at the same time in 2014.
  • Massive media campaigns have been started at National level using Audio Visual (TV) and Audio(Radio). States are also carrying out IEC campaign.
  • Use of social media: Swachh Bharat Whatsapp group has been created involving officials of GoI and all the States. Similar groups for individual States have been formed. A Facebook page for SBM(G) has also been created.
  • Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) guidelines have been circulated to States. Several National and regional workshops have been organized to orient the States to take up Solid and Liquid waste Management Activities in the Villages.
  • Exhibition of Innovations (Indovation) organized - Three Exhibitions were organized in New Delhi on 26-27th August 2014, 23-24 January 2015 and 2-3 July2015 wherein various innovative technologies in respect of Toilet, Solid and Liquid Waste Management and Water Treatment had been showcased to various Stakeholders / Users including various State Governments, NGOs and Research & Academic Institutions.
  • An Expert Committee headed by Dr. R.A. Mashelkar to examine the Innovative Technologies has been formed. This committee has enlisted various innovative technologies and a Compendium consisting of such technologies has been published and uploaded in the website of the Ministry for benefits of various stakeholders.
  • A link has been created in the website of the Ministry to where innovators, manufactures and other stakeholders can showcase their technologies/ ideas /innovations.
  • World Bank project of Rs. 9000 crore has been approved for incentivizing the States on the basis of their independently verified progress and sustenance of sanitation.
  • ODF has been defined and guidelines for ODF verification has been issued.
  • 173 districts have been identified as Phase-1 districts to make them ODF within one year.
  • Mobile app has also been developed to view sanitation status upto GP Level.
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Comprehensive web-based online monitoring systems for SBM(G) is in place with GP level data. The data is being updated at district level and state level. The system has been upgraded with a facility to upload the names and card number for beneficiaries for authentication of data. The SBM(G), MIS in the Ministry is being strengthened with States entering data of all 18.17 crore households in the country gathered from the Baseline Survey. This is to ensure rigorous Household monitoring of the coverage of sanitation access to toilets. Monthly progress of Coverage is also being monitored by name of household. A Mobile application for uploading photographs of toilets constructed after 2nd October 2014 has been launched. The photographs are geo- tagged. Mobile app has also been developed to view sanitation status upto GP Level. 175 districts have been identified as Phase-1 districts to make them ODF within one year. Special monitoring done for these districts. Third party monitoring is also being done through agencies such as National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO). A module for monitoring ODF is also available on the IMIS. Further, the IMIS provides for a module, whereby, the States/districts can transfer incentive fund directly to the community as a whole, as per the flexibility provided to the States. Periodic review meetings are conducted to review the physical and financial progress in the implementation of the SBM(G) in all the states. Beside review meetings, regular video conferencing also organized to review progress of SBM(G) and suggest corrective measures wherever required to achieve physical and financial objectives. Field visits are also made by the officers of the Ministry to see the implementation of sanitation programme. In order to get a quick feedback on innovations in addressing various implementation challenges, Rapid Action and Learning Unit (RALU) has been constituted at the National level and similar RALUs are being constituted at the State levels. The RALUs are small, flexible and specialized units to provide advice on corrective action and to upscale good practices. They are also to find quick and effective solutions and develop, share and spread those based on actual working in the field.

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One of the objectives of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) is bringing about an improvement in the general quality of life in rural areas. This objective cannot be met if the general cleanliness of villages is not maintained properly. Effective management of SLWM includes management of biodegradable and non biodegradable waste, management of all grey water generated in the village and general cleanliness of the village.

Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) is important component of SBM(G) . Under this component activities like compost pits, vermi composting, biogas plants, low cost drainage, soakage channels/ pits, reuse of waste water and system for collection, segregation and disposal of household garbage and menstrual hygiene management etc. can be taken up.

Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) are required to put in place mechanisms for garbage collection and disposal and for preventing water logging. Funds for Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities with cap of Rs. 7/12/15/20 lakh are available for Gram Panchayats having upto 150/300/500/ more than 500 households. The fund sharing pattern between the Centre, State/Panchayat /Community would be in the ratio of 60:40(90:10 in case of NE and special category States). In addition to this, upto Rs. 5 lakh per GPs is also available under MGNREGS for SLWM. Funds are also available under 14th Finance Commission Grants/State funds/CSR Funds etc.

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Information, Education and Communication (IEC) is an extremely important component of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) that lays the basis for successful implementation of the programme. It serves as a platform for informing, educating and persuading people to realize their roles, responsibilities and benefits accruing from investing in right sanitation practices. IEC play a very critical role in bringing behavior change on various aspects of safe sanitation, creating effective demand, usage and links to health and hygiene. The role of IEC in Demand generation for sanitary facilities is well recognized. The Sanitation programme for its success and sustainability requires empowered, well aware and skilled stakeholders capable of planning, implementation, operation, maintenance and management of sanitation schemes. The focus of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) is on behaviour change of people to adopt safe sanitation and hygiene. In order to educate the people, the programme lays emphasis on community involvement. Up to 8% of total resources can be spent on Information, Education and Communication (IEC) - of these 5% are to be spent at the State and district levels. The States have been advised to spend at least 60% of IEC funds for inter-personal communication (IPC) activities. Many States are focusing on community approach, wherein the people are directly triggered and made aware about the importance of sanitation and hygiene using some triggering tools. Besides, conventional IEC tools are also used to educate the people. Trainings of Collectors and key stakeholders are being done regularly on people’s education. Conventional IEC approaches like posters, pamphlets, wall writing, etc. may be undertaken but they have limited appeal and impact. The best way to create impact has been to follow a holistic approach that empowers communities through participatory, methodologies, which ‘trigger’ the minds of the community members to take informed decisions regarding their sanitation status. The communication at community level can be supplemented by a mass media Behavior Change Communication (BCC) initiative, which focuses on changing social and cultural norms regarding open defecation and maintaining a clean environment, which will not only change behaviors, but most importantly, support sustainability of the behavior change.

Ministry has come up with a Sanitation Hygiene and Communication Strategy (SHACS) in order to provide a broad framework to the States for the implementation of BCC activities to increase awareness among rural people, generation of demand for sanitation facilities and creation of clean environment. The focus of SHACS is on Inter Personal Communication (IPC), on which 60% of the IEC budget is proposed to be spent.

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The project of World Bank Support to Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) has been approved by Union Cabinet on 23.3.2016 with project cost of Rs. 9000 crore. The Project basically provides for incentivising States on the basis of their performance in the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The performance of the States will be gauged through an independent survey based measurement of certain performance indicators, called the Disbursement-Linked Indicators (DLIs). DLIs are as under :-

  • Reduction in the prevalence of open defecation
  • Sustaining Open Defecation Free (ODF) status in Villages
  • Increase in percentage of rural population served by improved Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM)

The objectives of the project are:

  • Reduced open defecation in rural areas
  • Open defecation free villages
  • Improved solid and liquid waste management
  • Strengthened capacity of Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation

The project will improve efficacy of the SBM(G), through an incentive framework, which will reorient the States’ efforts towards achievement of desirable outputs and outcomes of SBM(G), such as reduction in open defecation, sustainable achievement of open defecation free (ODF) villages and improvement in solid and liquid waste management (SLWM). The project will also strengthen the implementation capacities of Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, States, districts and grass-root levels in terms of inter alia strengthening of behaviour change communication, capacity building and programme management etc.

FAQs- SBM Phase I

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The Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) launched on 2nd October, 2014, by modifying the erstwhile Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA), is a community-led and people-oriented programme aimed at universalizing safe sanitation. Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) is only sanitation programme implemented by Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.

A

The Government launched Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) on 2nd October, 2014 to accelerate efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage, improve cleanliness and eliminate open defecation in India by 2nd October 2019.The program is considered India’s biggest drive to improve sanitation, hygiene and cleanliness in the country. The effectiveness of the Programme is predicated upon generating demand for toilets leading to their construction and sustained use by all the household members. It also aims to promote better hygiene behaviour amongst the population and improve cleanliness by initiating Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) projects in the villages of the country. This is to be bolstered with adequate implementation capacities in terms of trained personnel, financial incentives and systems and procedures for planning and monitoring. The emphasis is on stronger focus on behaviour change intervention including interpersonal communication; strengthening implementation and delivery mechanisms down to the GP level; and giving States flexibility to design delivery mechanisms that take into account local cultures, practices, sensibilities and demands.

A
  • Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) is restructured into Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
  • The Unit cost of the IHHL enhanced from Rs.10,000/- to Rs. 12,000/- so as to provide for water availability, including for storing, hand-washing and cleaning of toilets.
  • Central share for IHHLs to be Rs. 7200/- (60%) from Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The State share to be Rs. 4800/- (40%). For North Eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir and Special category states, the central share will be 10,800/- and the State share Rs. 1,200/-(90%:10%). Additional contributions from other sources are permitted.
  • Provision for IEC will be at 8% of total Project cost, with 3% to be utilised at the Central level and 5 % at State level.
  • Provision for Administrative Cost will be 2% of the Project cost. Sharing pattern will be 60:40 between Centre and State.
  • The part funding from MGNREGA for the payment of Incentives for the construction of Individual House Hold Latrines (IHHLs) is discontinued and the entire amount of GOI share paid from the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
  • SLWM funding will be at 60:40 sharing pattern. For CSCs it will be 60:30:10 (Centre: State: Community). CSCs will be constructed only when the Gram Panchayat takes the responsibility of ownership and a sustainable operation and maintenance system is assured.
  • The responsibility of construction of all School toilets is transferred to the Department of School Education and Literacy and of Anganwadi toilets to the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • Monitoring mechanism will be strengthened. Outputs (Construction) and Outcomes (Usage) will be monitored.
  • A menu of accredited Technology options for Toilets and SLWM projects shall be made available to the States by the Swachh Bharat Mission. The Mission will provide a list of minimal acceptable technologies for which assistance under this programme will be available. However use of any superior technology will be permitted at additional cost to be borne by the beneficiary.
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The main objectives of SBM(G) are :

  • Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open defecation.
  • The Unit cost of the IHHL enhanced from Rs.10,000/- to Rs. 12,000/- so as to provide for water availability, including for storing, hand-washing and cleaning of toilets.
  • Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2nd October 2019.
  • Motivate Communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions to adopt sustainable sanitation practices and facilities through awareness creation and health education.
  • Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
  • Develop where required, Community managed sanitation systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.
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The main activities are :

  • Construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHL)
  • Construction of Community Sanitary Complexes (CSCs).
  • Solid Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) activities.
  • Information, Education and Communication (IEC) and Human Resource Development (HRD) activities.
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